Friday, November 25, 2011

Name:-Italiya kinjal B.

Paper –E-C 304 English Language teaching-1

Topic: - The 4 Language Skills

Roll No:-09

Batch: - SEM -III

Submitted to: - Mr. Devarshi Mehta

The 4 Language Skills


When we learn a language, there are four skills that we need for complete communication. When we learn our native language, we usually learn to listen first, then to speak, then to read, and finally to write. These are called the four "language skills": Learning to speak, read, and write in the English language is the most important integration challenge that faces the more than one million immigrants.

The four language skills are related to each other in two ways:

• the direction of communication (in or out)

• the method of communication (spoken or written)

Input is sometimes called "reception" and output is sometimes called "production". Spoken is also known as "oral”. Note that these four language skills are sometimes called the "macro-skills". This is in contrast to the "micro-skills", which are things like grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and spelling. These skills are as under.

A) Listening -the ability to understand the language of the teacher and instruction, Comprehend and extract information, and follow the instructional discourse through which teachers provide information?

b) Speaking - the ability to use oral language appropriately and effectively in learning Activities (such as peer tutoring, collaborative learning activities, and question/answer Sessions) within the classroom and in social interactions.

c) Reading -the ability to comprehend and interpret text at the age and grade appropriate level.

d) Writing -the ability to produce written text with content and format fulfilling Classroom assignments at the age and grade-appropriate level.

A fully English proficient student is able to use English to ask questions, to Understand teachers, and reading materials, to test ideas, and to challenge what is being asked in the classroom. Four language skills contribute to proficiency as Follows: The main objective of this is to help students to develop listening skills for

Academic and professional purposes.

1. To help students acquire the ability to speak effectively in English in real-life Situations.

2. To inculcate reading habit and to develop effective reading skills.

3. To help students improve their active and passive vocabulary.

4. To familiarize students with different rhetorical functions of scientific English.

5. To enable students write letters and reports effectively in formal and business Situations.

6. To help them develop their soft skills and people skills, which will make the Transition from college to workplace smoother and help them to excel in their jobs?

7. To enhance students' performance at Placement interviews, Group Discussions and Other recruitment exercises.

Listening as a skill

English Listening Skills and Activities Effective Listening Practice
Acquiring Listening Skills

Acquiring listening skills is frustrating. This is because successful listening skills are acquired over time and with lots of practice. It's frustrating for students because there are no rules as in grammar teaching. Here is a discussion of the problem and some suggestions to improving listening skills.

Intonation and stress; key to Understanding

This feature takes a look at how intonation and stress influence the way English is spoken. By your ESL guide.
Speaking as a skill

How to speak more fluency

In order to imprint words on your memory and also to feel comfortable about pronouncing them at a moment's notice, it is necessary to practice vocabulary a number of times.

1. Decide which constructions and vocabulary is ideal for you to learn. (Be discerning, because you cannot learn everything.) Choose about ten new words per day to practice.

2. Practice them until you are word-perfect. Then use them in real situations by incorporating them into conversations with as many people as possible (at least six times each word or construction, but more if possible). The more you manage to use them in conversation, the more readily you will be able to say them fluently in the future.

REMEMBER: Fluency in English is accuracy with good pronunciation - not speed

How to speak more accuracy

From a learner's point of view, the problem with English is that it is too rich in constructions and vocabulary, i.e.: There are numerous words and constructions which have similar meanings. Mistakes occur when students remember half of one construction and half of another; they end up with a hotchpotch which is at best "incorrect but understandable" and at worst "nonsense"

Avoiding grammatical errors when speaking

Many students experience difficulties with the use of the present perfect, because the use of it does not correspond with a similar-looking tense in their own language. If it helps you, it is possible to avoid the present perfect altogether by using:-


e.g.: I have been to Tunisia. (Time unknown)

I went to Tunisia some time ago. (Exact time unknown)

I have just finished my homework. (Recent, but time unknown)

I finished my homework a short while ago (Recent, but exact time unknown)

English is such a rich and versatile language; it is possible to say what you want to say in more than one way.


Non-native speakers of English experience different pronunciation problems according to their native language. This is due to:

1. Different pronunciation of some letters

2. No equivalent sound in their own language

If students cannot hear whether they are pronouncing a sound correctly, then the only alternative is to "feel" and "see" whether they are pronouncing it properly.

English is a language which depends upon:-


Reading as a skill.

Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence, comprehension and fluency.


Reading skills are specific abilities which enable a reader

• to read the written form as meaningful language

• to read anything written with independence, comprehension and fluency, and

• To mentally interact with the message.


Here are some kinds of reading skills:

• Word attack skills let the reader figure out new words.

• Comprehension skill help the reader predict the next word, phrase, or sentence quickly enough to speed recognition.

• Fluency skill help the readers see larger segments, phrases, and groups of words as wholes.

• Critical reading skills help the reader see the relationship of ideas and use these in reading with meaning and fluency.

Strategies for Developing Reading Skills

• Previewing: reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions to get a sense of the structure and content of a reading selection

• Predicting: using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions about content and vocabulary and check comprehension; using knowledge of the text type and purpose to make predictions about discourse structure; using knowledge about the author to make predictions about writing style, vocabulary, and content

• Skimming and scanning: using a quick survey of the text to get the main idea, identify text structure, confirm or question predictions

• Guessing from context: using prior knowledge of the subject and the ideas in the text as clues to the meanings of unknown words, instead of stopping to look them up

• Paraphrasing: stopping at the end of a section to check comprehension by restating the information and ideas in the text.

When reading to learn, students need to follow four basic steps:

1. Figure out the purpose for reading. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate reading strategies.

2. Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity e amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory.

3. Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up skills simultaneously to construct meaning.

4. Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, helping them learn to use alternate strategies.
How to Improve Reading Skills

In the modern age of information, reading truly is a fundamental survival skill.

Here are ten tips that anyone can use to improve their reading skills:

1. You don't have to be a great reader to get the point.

2. Know WHY you're reading.

3. You don't need to read everything.

4. You don't need to read all of what you DO read.

5. Scan before you read.

6. Prioritize your reading.

7. Optimize your reading environment.

8. Once you start, don't stop!

9. Focus.

10. Practice!

Writing as a skill

Difference between spoken and written English. : Difference between spoken and written English. Spoken English is acceptable as long as it is understandable to the person whom you are talking to. Depending upon the person to whom you are talking, informal English can be used. Not much importance is given to the grammatical aspects. Pronunciation is important.

Written English: Written English Written English is formal. Grammar has to be take care of. Spellings are important. It really demonstrates your knowledge of the language. It helps create a good impression about the writer.
Writing also often involves going through a number of stages. When we write outside classroom we often go through these stages;

• Brainstorming – thinking of everything we can about the topic

• Making notes

• Planning

• Writing a draft

• Editing

• Producing another draft

• Proof- reading

Writing sub skill

 Punctuating correctly

 Planning

 Forming letters

 Linking

 Using the appropriate layout

 Paragraphing

 Proof-reading


A Good Teacher

 uses group work

 explains the meaning of all new words to the students

 adapts teaching style to students’ wishes, needs and learning styles

 spends a lot of time teaching correct pronunciation

 explains grammatical rules clearly

 encourages students to read aloud

 emphasises communication rather than grammar

 never uses or allows students to use L1 in the classroom

 uses the most effective teaching methods

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Paper –E-C 305Posts–Colonial Literature
Topic: - Black Skin, White Masks
Roll No:-09
Batch: - SEM -III       
Submitted to:-Dr.Dilip Barad
Black Skin, White Masks
Black Skin, White Masks is a 1952 book written by Frantz Fanon originally published in French as Peau noire, masques Blancs.In this study, Fanon uses psychoanalysis and psychoanalytical theory to explain the feelings of dependency and inadequacy that Black people experience in a White world. The behavior, Fanon argues, is even more evident in upwardly mobile and educated Black people who can afford to acquire status symbols. Black Skin, White Masks remained obscure for decades after its initial publication. Since the 1980s, it has become well-known as anti-colonial   and anti- racist   work in English-speaking countries. We find…
Internalization of Racism
     Inferiority complex
      Representation: White and Black community
In this fanon talking of millions of men who have been skillfully injected with fear, Inferiority complexes, trepidation, servility, despair, abasement. He takes about following topic.

Ø The Negro and Language
Ø The Woman of Color and the White Man
Ø The Man of Color and the White Woman
Ø The So-Called Dependency Complex of Colonized
Ø The Fact of Blackness
Ø The Negro and Psychopathology
Ø The Negro and Recognition
Ø By Way of Conclusion

 Why Frantz Fanon Writing this book”?
Ø Striving for a new humanism.
Ø Understanding Mankind.
Ø Our Black Brothers.
Ø I believe in you, Man.
Ø Racial prejudice.
Ø Understanding and Loving. 

Beginning of the chapter…
 “I want to be recognized not as black but as white.. By loving me she proves to me that I am worthy of a white love. I am loved like a white man. I am a white man.”
              Mindset or psychology of racism by Frantz Fanon, a psychiatrist, black post-colonial thinker. The book looks at the condition which goes through the minds of Blacks and Whites.
“I think it would be good if certain things were said: Fanon and the epidemiology of oppression”
The opening gambit of Black Skin, White Masks ushers us
Towards an imminent experience: the explosion wills not happen today. But a type of explosion is about to unfold in the text in front of us, in the motivations it seeks, in the different world envisages and aims to create. We are presented with a series of statements, maxims if you like, both obvious and not so obvious: I do not come with timeless truths; fervor is the weapon of choice
of the impotent; the black man wants to be white, the white man slaves to reach a human level. We are left with little doubt we are confronting a great deal of anger. The resentment takes us to particular place: a zone of non-being, an extraordinary sterile and arid region, where black is not a man, and mankind is digging into its own flesh to find meaning.

            For Fanon such a myth of Man and Society is fundamentally undermined in the colonial situation where everyday life exhibits “constellation of delirium” that mediates the normal social relations of its subjects: “The Negro enslaved by his inferiority, the white man enslaved by his superiority alike behave in accordance with a neurotic orientation.” What is often called the black soul is a white man’s artifact,”“What is often called the black soul is a white man’s artefact,”Fanon writes. This transference, I’ve argued, speaks otherwise. It reveals the deep psychic uncertainty of the colonial relation
Itself; its split representations stage that division of “body” “soul” which enacts the of “identity”; a division which cuts across the fragile skin – black and white—of individual and social authority. What emerges from the Figurative language I have used to make such an argument is three conditions that underlie an understanding of the process of identify action in the Analytic of desire.

“What does a man want?”  

Ø The Black man wants to be white.
Ø The white man is desperately trying to achieve the rank of man.
Ø The white man is locked in his whiteness.

What is colonial psyche and unconscious desire?
          Fanon’s demand for apsychoanalyticexplanation emerges from the perverse reflections of “civil virtue” in the alienating acts of colonial governance: the visibility
of cultural “mummification” in the colonizer’s avowed ambitionto civilize or modernize the native which results in “archaic inert institutions [that function] under the oppressor’s supervision likes caricature of formerly fertile institutions”; or the validity of violence in the very defi nition of the colonial social space; or the viability of the febrile, fantasmatic images of racial hatred that come to be absorbed and acted out in the wisdom of the West.
The vision of Black man
     Forbidden values
     Escapism from being individual black
     “X is black, but misery is blacker.”
The Black men and Language
qIf you do, not learn the White men’s language than you are unintelligent. 
qThe White men: Always Black, never fully human.
  No matter how much education they have or well they act.                

Role of Fear:
q White men's fear: Black men are viewed as mindless, violent, animal being.
qWhite men think that they will take White women from them. 
Fanon says that he has only           
                     one right and one duty
qThe right to demand human behavior from the other.
qThe duty to never let his decision renounce his freedom.
The Negro and Language
These all are important point
     Importance of Language
     The Negro and the White
     Negro’s behavior with the White people
     Mastery of the Language
Inferiority complex created
     The colonizer and the colonized
     Negros were serving in the French army
     “Language can make you whiter”
     “He doesn’t even know how to speak, French.”
     Negro improving Language
     Reading aloud in house and wanted to improve diction
     Negro loses his identity – psychoanalytical “failures”
     Here Is A Black Man Who Handles The French Language Unlike Any White Man Today”.
      To Speak A Language Is To Appropriate Its World And Culture”.
The fifth chapter, which I have called “The lived Experience of the Black Man”. White civilization and European culture have imposed an existential deviation on the black man.
Etimble says, “Now you who are a Negress…”“Me, a Negress? Can’t you see I’m almost white, I hate niggers, Niggers stink? They’re dirty and lazy. Don’t ever mention niggers to me.”
Women of color and the white man

        Secretly she wants to be white. she says  that “I loved him because he had blue eyes blond hair and light skin”
        She only wants to join white word
        But they never loved by white
        Losing their identity    
        Man of color and the
 white woman
        “ I want to be recognized not as black but    
     As white…. Who better than the white      
     Woman to bring this about? By loving me
     She proves me that I am worthy of a
    White love. I am loved liked a white man.
    I am white man.”
¡ “The Collective unconscious is not dependent on cerebral heredity; it is the result of what I shall call the ‘unreflected’ imposition of a culture” .In the collective unconscious; Black ugliness, sin, darkness, immorality: In other words he is Negro who is immoral. 
q At last he says that… One last prayer:
                       O my body, always
 Make me a man who questions!

Name:-Italiya kinjal B.
Paper –E-C 303: American Literature Topic: Poe’s select short stories.            
Roll No:-09
Batch: - SEM -III       
Submitted to: - Dr Dilip Barad
 Poe’s select short stories.             
                        Poe was an American author, poet, editor and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is considered the inventor of the deductive fiction genre. He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science Fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. His publishing career began humbly, with an anonymous collection of poems, Tamerlane and other poems (1827), credited only to "a Bostonian"

       The fall of the House of usher (1939)     
                       “The Fall of the House of Usher” possesses the quintessential -features of the Gothic tale: a haunted house, dreary landscape, mysterious sickness, and doubled personality. For all its easily identifiable Gothic elements, however, part of the terror of this story is its vagueness. A woman also returns from the dead in   The fall of the House of usher. The story’s narrator is summoned by his boyhood friend Roderick Usher to visit him during a period of emotional distress. The narrator discovers that Roderick’s twin sister, Madeline is also sick.  She takes a turn for the worse shortly after the narrators arrival, and the men bury Madeline in a tomb within the house. They later discover, to their horror, that they have entombed her alive.madeline   claws her way out, collapsing eventually on Roderick, who dies in fear?                                  
                           Madeline Usher - Roderick’s twin sister and victim of catalepsy, a mysterious incapacitating illness. Because the narrator is surprised to discover that Madeline is a twin, she signals the narrator’s outsider relationship to the house of Usher.

                      Unnamed narrator - Roderick’s best boyhood friend. Contacted by Roderick during his emotional distress, the narrator knows little about the house of Usher and is the first outsider to visit the mansion in many years.

The tell-Tale heart (1843)                    
                       Poe uses his words economically in the “Tell-Tale Heart” it is one of his shortest stories to provide a study of paranoia and mental deterioration. Poe strips the story of excess detail as a way to heighten the murderer’s obsession with specific and unadorned entities: the old man’s eye, the heartbeat, and his own claim to sanity. Ossessed with the vulture-like etc of an old man he otherwise loves and trust, the narrator smothers the old man, dismembers his body, and conceals the parts under the floorboards of the bedroom When the police arrive to investigate reports of the old man’s shrieks, the narrator attempts to keep his cool, but here’s What he thinks is the beating of the old man’s heart. Panicking, afraid that the police know his secret, he ropes up the floorboards and confesses his crime.                                                                                                                                                                         

                        U unnamed   narrator - The murderer of the old man. Addressing the reader, the narrator offers his tale of precise murder and dismemberment as an argument for his sanity. Old man - The narrator’s murder victim. The narrator’s obsession with the old man’s one vulture-eye indicates the insanity that the narrator wants to deny.

 The cask of amontillado (1846)                     
                            The terror of “The Cask of Amontillado,” as in many of Poe’s tales, resides in the lack of evidence that accompanies Montessori’s claims to Fortunate’s “thousand injuries” and “insult.” The story features revenge and secret murder as a way to avoid using legal channels for retribution. Law is nowhere on Montessori’s or Poe’s—radar screen, and the enduring horror of the story is the fact of punishment without proof. Montessori uses his subjective experience of Fortunate’s insult to name himself judge, jury, and executioner in this tale, which also makes him an unreliable narrator.
                        The vengeful Montresor repays the supposed in  The vengeful montresor repays the supposed insults of his enemy, fortunate.luring fortunate into the crypts of his home with the promise of Amontillado sherry, montresor entombs Fortunato in a wall while the carnival rages s above them
The purloined Letter (1844)                                 
                         “The Purloined Letter” establishes a new genre of short fiction in American literature: the detective story. Poe considered “The Purloined Letter” his best detective story, and critics have long identified the ways in which it redefines the mystery genre it turns away from action toward intellectual analysis, for example.
                        In this sequel to “The Murders in the rue Morgue,”Dupin recovers a stolen letter to foil a villains plan.  The police attempt thorough investigations but come up with nothing. Identifying with the criminal mind, dupin discovers evidence so obvious that it had gone unnoticed.         
                       C. Auguste Dupin - A savvy and learned Parisian who helps the city’s police solve crimes. Dupin uses psychology to foil the plans of a thief and uncover a stolen letter that the police of Paris could not uncover by conventional investigations.
                      Unnamed narrator - A friend of Dupin. In awe of Dupin’s brilliance, the narrator faithfully recounts Dupin’s explanations without doubting or challenging him.

Themes, Motifs & Symbols


Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
Love and Hate
Poe discovers the similarity of love and hate in many stories, especially “The Tell-Tale Heart”.” Poe depicts the psychological complexity of these two evidently opposite emotions; highlight the ways they mysteriously blend into each other. Poe’s psychological insight expects the theories of Sigmund Freud, the Austrian founder of psychoanalysis and one of the twentieth century’s most influential thinkers.
Self vs. Alter Ego
In many of Poe’s Gothic tales, characters wage internal conflicts by creating imaginary alter egos or assuming alternate and opposite personalities. The Cask of Amontillado.
The Power of the Dead over the Living
Poe often gives memory the power to keep the dead alive. Poe distorts this otherwise commonplace literary theme by bringing the dead literally back to life, employing memory as the trigger that reawakens the dead.


Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes.
The Masquerade
At masquerades Poe’s characters abandon social conventions and leave themselves vulnerable to crime. In “The Cask of Amontillado,” for -example, Montresor uses the carnival’s masquerade to fool Fortunato into his own demise. The masquerade carries the traditional meanings of joy and social liberation. Reality is suspended, and people can temporarily assume another identity. Montresor exploits these sentiments to do Fortunato real harm.
In Poe’s murder stories, homicide requires animalistic element. Animals kill, they die, and animal imagery provokes and informs crimes committed between men. Animals signal the absence of human reason and morality, but sometimes humans prove less rational than their beastly counterparts. In “The Tell-Tale Heart,” the murderer dehumanizes his victims by likening him to animal. The narrator of “The Tell-Tale Heart” claims to hate and murder the old man’s “vulture eye,” which he describes as “pale blue with a film over it.” He attempts to justify his actions by implicitly comparing himself to a helpless creature threatened by a hideous scavenger. In the “Cask of Amontillado,” Montresor does the reverse, readying himself to commit the crime by equating himself with an animal. In killing Fortunato, he cites his family arms, a serpent with its fangs in the heel of a foot stepping on it, and motto, which is translated “no one harms me with impunity.” Fortunato, whose insult has spurred Montresor to revenge, becomes the man whose foot harms the snake Montresor and is punished with a lethal bite.


Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.

In “The Tell-Tale Heart,” the narrator fixates on the idea that an old man is looking at him with the Evil Eye and transmitting a curse on him. At the same time that the narrator obsesses over the eye, he wants to separate the old man from the Evil Eye in order to spare the old man from his violent reaction to the eye. The narrator reveals his inability to recognize that the “eye” is the “I,” or identity, of the old man. The eyes symbolize the essence of human identity, which cannot be separated from the body. The eye cannot be killed without causing the man to die.
In “The Cask of Amontillado,” Poe uses Fortunato’s name symbolically, as an ironic device. Though his name means “the fortunato one” in Italian, Fortunato meets an unfortunate fate as the victim of Montresor’s revenge. Fortunato adds to the irony of his name by wearing the costume of a court jester. While Fortunato plays in jest, Montresor sets out to fool him, with murderous results.

His tales are Tales of grotesque and arabesque. Tales of ratiocination and mystery.  He is the Master of macabre. The celebrant of terror and death

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Name:-Italiya kinjal B
Paper –E-C -302 Research Methodologies
Topic: - Preparing research proposal
Roll No:-09
Batch: - SEM -III       
Submitted to:-Dr.Dilip Barad

Preparing research proposal
Audio visual (ICT) and computer -Based Technology Use in Second Language Learning: four skill of English language

Roll no:-O9.
Dept. of English.
Bhavnagar University.
Submitted to Dr. DilipBarad
Dept. of English
Bhavnagar University
This paper reviews the Research on Audio visual -Based Technology use in Second Language Learning: four skill of English language given the strong interest in technology use for Language learning, it is important to look at how technology has been used in the field thus far.

The goals of this review are:-
(1) To understand how Audio visual have been used in to support second language and foreign language learning,
(2) To explore any research evidence with regards to how Audio visual technology can enhance language skills acquisition.

This paper discusses the findings of said review under the following categories:
(a) Potentials of Audio visual technology and its use in specific areas,
(b) Software tools used in certain language
Skill areas,
  (c) Computerized language testing,
 Second language learning, foreign language learning, in Audio visual in language Learning, technology enhanced language learning.

                        The application of Audio visual technology in language classrooms included the use of Film, radio, television, language labs with audio/video tapes, computers, and interactive video Various types of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) also began to become more commonplace .Although there were some innovative uses of software, the majority of CALL uses were limited, in form, to drill and practice exercises. As the technology advanced, we began to see more interactive uses of CALL as well as an increase in the integration of various media into the computer system. Audio visual technology became more accessible to both individuals and schools.
Moreover, our growing understanding of its potentials has encouraged a shift in emphasis from Audio visual technology itself to its applications. That is, finding ways to use computers, Film, radio, television, language labs with audio/video tapes for enhancing teaching and learning has gained prominence in the research. Today, the use of multimedia, the Internet (especially the World Wide Web), and various forms of distance learning are wide spread. Interest in using them as tools to support language learning is growing, both from the perspective of a language educator and that of a language learner. Given the strong interest in the potentials of Audio visual technology for language learning, it is important to examine how   Audio visual   have been used to support second and foreign language learning in the past. Our task was, therefore, to review the literature on it should be noted that for the purpose of this Research, I use the terms "second language"
And "foreign language" interchangeably, and have included   Research        that address both. The technologies examined in this review refer to computer-based or audio visual (ICT) technology uses in the classrooms, such as traditional computer-assisted language uses, multimedia technology, and the Internet.

The questions guiding this research are:
(1) How have Audio visual (ICT) and computer been used in second/foreign language learning/teaching.
(2) Is there any research evidence on how Audio visual (ICT) and computer-based technology can enhance language skills acquisition?
            By examining the literature, I hope to get a better sense of what we already know from the past research and what I need to know while planning research for the future.

My intent was to review research Purpose that discussed computer technology in second/foreign Language learning/teaching in refereed   Material, whether they were data-based or not.  My primary data source was from refereed print-based Material.  I decided not to include, as my data source, from material in abstracts for two reasons:
 (1) I wanted to review refereed print-based Material documents and
(2) I considered it virtually impossible to locate and get copies of all material documents.
The bibliography provides a complete list of all the articles reviewed for this project.

Given what appeared in the print-based Material documents
Following categories:
 (1) Non-research based, and
(2) Research based.
The non-research based
Category included conceptual discussions and descriptions on
 (a) The potentials of Audio visual (ICT) and Computer technology and its use in specific areas,
(b) Computerized language testing. On computer use in second/foreign language learning

Potentials of Computer Technology in Second Language Learning
For example,
Asserted that the possibilities of computer technology as a tool could include increasing language Learners’
(1) Self esteem,
(2) Vocational preparedness,
 (3) Language proficiency and
(4) Overall Academic skills.
                       Furthermore, the benefits of multimedia, the Internet, and various forms of Distance education were explored by many others .included the use of Film, radio, television, language labs with audio/video tapes, Educators were particularly interested in Technology’s interactive capabilities, such as providing immediate feedback and increasing Learner autonomy, in addition to the capability of simulating real-world situations via audio, video, and graphics.

Importance of Applying Pedagogy and Design Principles
Apart from the reported enthusiasm for using computers, the realization that" is essentially impotent without creative and imaginative application (P.g.121)

Computer Assisted Language Testing
Computer-assisted language testing (CALT) is generally defined as “an integrated procedure in which language performance is elicited and assessed...” by computers (p.g.122)

Research Based Studies

This category was of particular importance and interest to me, as I hoped to find an Answer to my guiding research question, "Is there any research evidence on how computer-based and Audio visual (ICT)
Technology can enhance language skills acquisition?"This category included data based studies using qualitative and/or quantitative methods, as a student I give my own views on it.
"How have computers been used in the in to support second and
Foreign language learning?" It is clear that the benefits of CALL have been widely accepted and educators agree that it can be an effective instructional tool. Both CALL advantages and limitations were explored and discussed with regard to its applications in various skills areas,
With reading and writing as the two most frequently explored areas. The interest in technology appeared to center on the multimedia capabilities of providing authentic learning situations, and local or distant networking capabilities (such as email, synchronous and asynchronous exchange) for facilitating written communication. The use of the WWW in language.

Implications for Future Research
Given what was found in the research, the following are important issues to address as
I plan for future studies in second language learning.
Research needs to have a solid foundation in theories;
Software needs to be based upon relevant pedagogical and design principles for them to
Be effective;
Studies need to use well-established and reliable measures;
Research focus should go beyond anxiety, attitudes, vocabulary acquisition, and language
More research needs to be conducted in the less explored skills areas such as speaking,
Listening, and culture;
More research needs to be conducted at the K-12 level.
Language learning is a multifaceted social and cultural phenomenon, even more so when
It involves new technologies that promote a variety of social interactions
 Studies employing both quantitative and qualitative measures are needed to explain the Complex interaction of social, cultural, and individual factors that shape the language learning Process in a computer assisted environment. In-depth studies which address contextual factors
Such as types of learning tasks and teacher’s beliefs about language learning.
My wish to acknowledge the  Dr.DilipBarad to  provide me guidance on it  and my special thanks to my  brother Paras in searching and gathering the material for this research project.

E.M.Anthony. “Methods and approaches of Teaching English” (10-25)