Monday, February 6, 2012

Name :- Italiya KInjal
Paper :-E-C-402 ELT-2
Topic  :- EvaluationRoll.No:-  09

Submitted to  Dr.Dilip Barad
Dept. of English
Bhavanagar Uni.


Introduction to Evaluation

                     The concept of evaluation was introduced by B.S.Bloom.Evalution is a gradual and continuous process. Evaluation is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information about teaching and learning in order to make informed decisions that enhance student achievement and the success of educational programmers English language basic texts, that have plain and clear descriptions of what is evaluation, what is it all about, how you can define it. According to J.W.Wrightstone,

“Evolution is a new technical term introduced to design a more comprehensive concept of measurement.”

Meaning of evaluation

                         Evolution is a mean to judge the achievement of the student in the field of education. The measure-ment of achievement is generally done through tests and examinations. Tests are given weekly, fortnightly or monthly, where as examinations are held at the end of a term or a session. A test verities a pupils progress during a specific period of time. Evaluation is a methodological area that is directly related to, but discernible from more traditional social research. Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it requires group skills, management ability of the target language.

Definitions of Evaluation

Probably the most frequently given definition is:

“Evaluation is the systematic assessment of the worth or merit of some object”

                   This definition is hardly perfect. There are many types of evaluations that do not necessarily result in an assessment of worth or merit -- descriptive studies, implementation analyses, and formative evaluations, to name a few. Better perhaps is a definition that emphasizes the information-processing and feedback functions of evaluation. For instance, one might say:

“Evaluation is the systematic acquisition and assessment of information to provide useful feedback about some object”

                             Both definitions agree that evaluation is a systematic endeavor and both use the deliberately ambiguous term 'object' which could refer to a program, policy, technology, person, need, activity, and so on. The latter definition emphasizes acquiring and assessing information rather than assessing worth or merit because all evaluation work involves collecting and sifting through data, making judgments about the validity of the information and of inferences we derive from it, whether or not an assessment of worth or merit results.

The Goals of Evaluation

                          The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide "useful feedback" to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies. Most often, feedback is perceived as "useful" if it aids in decision-making. But the relationship between an evaluation and its impact is not a simple one studies that seem critical sometimes fail to influence short-term decisions, and studies that initially seem to have no influence can have a delayed impact when more congenial conditions arise. Despite this, there is broad consensus that the major goal of evaluation should be to influence decision-making or policy formulation through the provision of empirically-driven feedback.

Types of Evaluatio

                        There are many different types of evaluations depending on the object being evaluated and the purpose of the evaluation. Perhaps the most important basic distinction in evaluation types is that between formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluations strengthen or improve the object being evaluated -- they help form it by examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context, personnel, procedures, inputs, and so on. Summative evaluations, in contrast, examine the effects or outcomes of some object -- they summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object.

Formative evaluation includes several evaluation types:

Ø Needs assessment determines who needs the program, how great the need is, and what might work to meet the need

Ø evaluability assessment determines whether an evaluation is feasible and how stakeholders can help shape its usefulness

Ø structured conceptualization helps stakeholders define the program or technology, the target population, and the possible outcomes

Ø implementation evaluation monitors the fidelity of the program or technology delivery

Ø process evaluation investigates the process of delivering the program or technology, including alternative delivery procedures

Summative evaluation can also be subdivided:

Ø Outcome evaluations investigate whether the program or technology caused demonstrable effects on specifically defined target outcomes

Ø Impact evaluation is broader and assesses the overall or net effects -- intended or unintended -- of the program or technology as a whole

Ø cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis address questions of efficiency by standardizing outcomes in terms of their dollar costs and values

Ø secondary analysis reexamines existing data to address new questions or use methods not previously employed

Ø meta-analysis integrates the outcome estimates from multiple studies to arrive at an overall or summary judgment on an evaluation question

These are four following steps in evaluation. They are also applicable to the Teaching of English.

1) Determining the educational objectives.

2) Organinging learning experiences to change the behavior of pupils according to the educational objectives.

3) Measurement of the behavioral change

4) Referring the measurement of educational objectives.
The objectives of teaching English have been discussed in it. Organizing the learning experience for behavioral change, there should be objective based lesson planning for the management of the behavioral change, the following devices are used:-

a) Observation
b) Interview
c) Questionnaire
d) Check-list
e) Creative words,e.g. students,painting,poems
f) Examination with objective test items:- this can be oral and written. The oral and written examinations contain objective test items

Test Item 1

Ø Objective : knowledge

Ø Specification : discrimination

Ø Topic : elements of knowledge

Ø Sub-topic : sentence structure

Ø Marks: 1

Ø Direction : fill in the gaps:

I………….going to the market. I met………………one old friend of mine

Test Item 2

Ø Objective : knowledge

Ø Specification : recognition
Ø Topic : elements of language

Ø Sub-topic : vocabulary

Ø Marks: 1

Ø Direction : Guava is a…………

a) Cereal,

b) Vegetable,

c) Fruit.

Test Item3

Column I column II

1. Delhi ( ) A. water present in the air.

2. Calcium ( ) B. pioneer of nursing.

3. Tagor ( ) C. Discovery of India.

4. Florence Nightingale ( ) D. The capital of India

5. Water- vapour ( ) E. Noble prize

6. Jawaharlal ( ) F.Builds strong bones and teeth

G. Indian bird.

Test Item4

I) the word which qualifies a noun is called………..

II) The poem “Slave Dream” was written by………

III) The opposite of “Honesty” is………..

Test Item5

A. Oliver Twists was on ……… . As an orphan………. Lived in a workhouse. The …………officers treated him very badly. They did not…….

B. Oliver was looked up at once, and next…….a notice was put up on the ……..of the gate, offering a……..of five pounds to anybody who……Oliver of the hands of the………..

                         The teacher should present a complete test by preparing a blue-print which gives the rationale and the planning of the test. After the measurement of behavioral change, it should be determined whether the said objectives have been achieved or not. In this way, evaluation is a long continuous and qualitative process.  Formulating and conceptualizing methods might be used including brainstorming, focus groups, nominal group techniques, Delphi methods, brain writing, stakeholder analysis, synaptic, lateral thinking, input-output analysis, and concept mapping. The most common method used here is "needs assessment" which can include: analysis of existing data sources, and the use of sample surveys, interviews of constituent populations, qualitative research, expert testimony, and focus groups. Some of the methods already listed apply here, as do detailing methodologies like simulation techniques, or multivariate methods like multiattribute utility theory or exploratory causal modeling; decision-making methods; and project planning and implementation methods like flow charting. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring techniques, the use of management information systems, and implementation assessment would be appropriate methodologies here.Evaluability assessment can be used here, as well as standard approaches for selecting an appropriate evaluation design. One would choose from observational and correlation methods for demonstrating whether desired effects occurred, and quasi-experimental and experimental designs for determining whether observed effects can reasonably be attributed to the intervention and not to other sources.

                        The distinctions between planning and evaluation are not always clear; this cycle is described in many different ways with various phases claimed by both planners and evaluators. Usually, the first stage of such a cycle  the planning phase  is designed to elaborate a set of potential actions, programs, or technologies, and select the best for implementation. Depending on the organization and the problem being addressed, a planning process could involve any or all of these stages: the formulation of the problem, issue, or concern; the broad conceptualization of the major alternatives that might be considered; the detailing of these alternatives and their potential implications; the evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of the best one; and the implementation of the selected alternative. The evaluation phase also involves a sequence of stages that typically includes: the formulation of the major objectives, goals, and hypotheses of the program or technology; the conceptualization and operationalization of the major components of the evaluation  the program, participants, setting, and measures; the design of the evaluation, detailing how these components will be coordinated; the analysis of the information, both qualitative and quantitative; and the utilization of the evaluation results.