Friday, March 30, 2012

Name: - Italiya Kinjal

Paper:-E-E-405 R.K.Narayan

Topic: - Introduction of the novel “The Guide” by R.K.Narayan – The Journey of Raju from Guide to Guru or railway to River.

Roll. No: - 09

Submitted to Dr.Dilip Barad

Dept. of English

Bhavnagar Uni.

Introduction of the novel “The Guide” by R.K.Narayan – The Journey of Raju from Guide to Guru or railway to River.

One of the most charming masters of twentieth century fiction.

- The Scotsman

Rasipuram Krishna swami Ayyar Narayanaswami or R. K. Narayan is one of the most celebrated Indian novelists writing in English..R.K. Narayan's Presentation of Indian Society in his Stories its show how the lives of ordinary Indian people reflect the greater concerns of national identity and historical change. He is unusual among Indian authors writing in English in that he has stayed contentedly in his home country, venturing abroad only rarely. He rarely addresses political issues or tries to explore the cutting edge of Novel. He is a traditional teller of tales, a creator of realist Novels. Which is often gentle, humorous, and warm rather than hard-hitting or profound? Almost all of his writings are set in the fictional city of Malgudi, and are narrowly focused on the lives of relatively humble individuals, neither extremely poor nor very rich.

The Guide

The Guide is one of R.K. Narayan's most interesting books which begins as a comic look at the life of a rogue, but evolves into something quite different. In a fairly compact and concise manner the book conveys the numerous aspects of the day to day lives of India people. The different culture systems, the superstitions and values of the people of a small town named Malgudi serve as a reflection on Indian society altogether. The main character of the story is Raju, who is also the narrator of the story. He starts with a description of his life as a kid, his experiences, and his education. The story intertwines a series of experiences as a kid and as an adult that eventually lead to Raju's becoming a rogue, his imprisonment and his life thereafter. One starts out with the belief of Raju as a thief and a criminal and then ends with the reader in sympathy for the Raju. The guide refers to his profession as a guide for the villagers and the foreigners when they come to this small town

The Sacred in “The Guide”

While reading The Guide question arise that Is Raju a real saint or is he a fake? This question, in one form or another, hinging as it does on the interpretation of Raju’s pilgrim’s progress, has exercised most readers of the novel ever since its publication. As Raju sinks into the muddy river bed, he is dying, whether or not, as the water rises to Raju’s knees, it rises because “it’s raining in the hills” or because Raju himself is sagging into it, so it’s sacred in it.

The Guide as Guru

From all this , we should be prepared, as we find earlier, to see THE GUIDE as a novel about the rather serious issue of what constitutes a Guru—this, at any rate, is ONE of its major themes. Furthermore, the novel not only asks if Raju is a real Guru but also if Gurus are for real. At an even more complex level, the novel engages with the whole question of Indian modernity we think it is significant that at the end of Raju’s narration, we are back in the third person narrative. We have been placed in Velan’s shoes, so to speak, having to decide for ourselves whether we still wish to regard Raju as a holy man or not, knowing so clearly that he is an imposter. As the text tell us: Raju had mentioned without a single omission every detail from his birth to his emergence from the gates of the prison. He imagined that Velan would rise with disgust and swear, ‘And we took you for such a noble soul all along! If one like you does penance, it’ll drive off even the little rain that we may hope for. Beg lone, it – before we feel tempted to throw you out’ Raju waited for these words as if for words of reprieve. He looked on Velan’s silence with anxiety and suspense, as if he waited on a judge’s verdict again, a second time. (208)This is the story of an eager, even enthusiastic guide turned into a reluctant Guru. Some are born Gurus; some acquire Guru Hood; and some, indeed, have Gurudom thrust upon them. But the question still remains if the last are genuine—are they really Gurus or are they fakes?


The Guide is a novel about the rather serious issue of what constitutes a Guru—this, at any rate, is one of its major themes. Furthermore, the novel not only asks if Raju is a real Guru but also if Gurus are for real. At an even more complex level, the novel engages with the whole question of Indian modernity. Did modernity in India really refashion Indian society as it did in Europe? Or is it something that exists, side by side with tradition, but unable to comprehend it? Or is it a superficial facade, a veneer that hides but not erases the force of tradition?


Raju, the central character, grows up near a railway station, and becomes a shopkeeper, and then a resourceful tourist Guide. He meets Rosie, a beautiful dancer, and her husband, whom Raju nicknames Marco, because the man dresses in a thick jacket and helmet as if undertaking an expedition, like Marco Polo.Raju, the hero of the novel, is a shopkeeper on reaching adulthood, but finally changes his profession to become a tourist Guide as he feels that being a resourceful and talkative person, he can become a successful tourist Guide.


The novel also tells two stories, that of Raju’s relationship with Rosie, and that of Raju’s relationship with the villagers as a holy man. The novel begins with Raju sitting beside the temple and meeting the villager named Velan, who mistakes him for a holy man. The novel then alternates between an account of Raju’s career as a holy man, which is told in the third-person, and Raju’s account to Velan of his previous career as a tour Guide and lover, which is told in the first-person. This dualism reflects the dualism in Raju’s character. He is transformed from a sinner to a saint, though he is never truly a sinner, and never truly a saint. Because of his capacity for empathy, Raju is a sympathetic character throughout the novel.


The title of the novel is very apt as it shows Raju’s career and life as a Guide for the tourists and then later on for the villagers. The novel shows his progression and transformation from a selfish tourist Guide to a selfless holy. From Guide an unruly, undisciplined, and selfish man, he turns into a thoughtful, selfless, and disciplined person. The major theme of transmigration of the human soul from the clutches of ‘Maya’ or ordinary desires to attain ‘nirvana’ or self realization is amply demonstrated by the author in the novel. Raju begins his journey of life as a selfish man who is smitten and trapped in the world of ‘Maya’ or illusion, but finally is able to achieve the path of self realization in the end when he turns into a selfless guru or spiritual Guide, doing his dharma, or moral duty assigned to him by God. He rises from the ranks of a railway Guide to a spiritual Guide and derives spiritual joy from the fast that he keeps for the villagers. From a Pseudo Saint he attains the stature of a real saint.


The daily life of the Indians, the ethnicity of the land and indeed the superstitions and values of India gains a contour in the remarkable novel “ The Guide “.It is the story of a tourist Guide Raju, who happens to be the central character of the novel. The development of the character of Raju, as a travel Guide justifies the title. Although started in a rather loose way the story carries a deep significance of sheer realisms R.K.Narayan quite consciously in his novel "The Guide” echoes the mores and tradition of the Indian society amidst his literal symbolisms.


Narayan's greatest achievement was making India accessible to the outside world throughhisliterature`TheGuide begins as a comic look at the life of a rogue, but develops into something different in its progression. In a fairly compact and concise manner the book conveys the numerous aspects of the day-to-day lives of Indian people. The different culture systems, the superstitions and values of the people of a small town named Malgudi serve as a reflection on Indian society altogether.

Name: - Italiya Kinjal

Paper:-E-C-401 New Lite.

Topic: - Introduction of the novel “The white Tiger” –Aravind Adiga “Poor-rich divide in Aravind Adiga’s The white Tiger.

Roll. No: - 09

Submitted to Dr.Dilip Barad

Dept. of English

Bhavnagar Uni.

Introduction of the novel “The white Tiger” –Aravind Adiga “Poor-rich divide in Aravind Adiga’s The white Tiger.


Aravind Adiga's debut novel, THE WHITE TIGER, won the 2008 Booker Prize. The novel provides a darkly comical view of modern day life in India through the narration of its protagonist Balram Halwai. The main theme of the novel is the contrast between India's rise as a modern global economy and its working class people who live in crushing poverty. Other themes touched on include the corruption endemic to Indian society and politics, familial loyalty versus independence, religious tensions between Hindus and Muslims, and the experience of returning to India after living in America, globalization, and the rivalry between India and China as superpower countries in Asia.

Explanation of the novel's title

The book's title, The White Tiger, is the protagonist Balram's nickname, which he earns by being deemed the smartest boy in his village by an education inspector. Balram is told that he is like a white tiger, a rare animal that is said to come only once per generation. Later on when Balram becomes an entrepreneur, he names his taxi company "The White Tiger Drivers".

Views on globalization

Globalization in India, according to Balram, is successful due to the fact that international companies outsource their information, media, and products for production in India. Balram claims that outsourcing is the key to future economic success as international businesses profit quite well in India, especially if they’re in the technology field. Some examples of the businesses that Balram mentions are Microsoft, IBM, Dell, Yahoo!, and Hewlett-Packard. Religion plays a major role in an Indian’s life as it symbolizes tradition and honor. This is revealed through the marriage of Ashok and Pinky Madam as Ashok’s father did not approve of their union because she wasn’t from the same religion or caste as him.

Competition and similarities between China and India

It has been predicted that because of the massive population that is working for the technology industry, China and India will become the next superpower countries in the world. Both countries have bountiful and strong technology markets and rely on outsourcing which has led to the creation of many international technology businesses in both countries. Balram believes this prediction to be true, saying, “twenty years’ time, it will just be us brown and yellow men at the top of the pyramid, and we'll rule the whole world.” There are also other similarities between China and India that do not lie in the world of business. Both countries have massive economic disparities, in which there are many rich people but also many poor people. As well in both countries, there is also“Darkness” where many impoverished people struggle to escape into the “Light”, where the wealthy live in the lap of luxury. The poor serve the rich with an honest attitude, while the poor remain poor, their hard work taken for granted. As Balram says, “The trustworthiness of servants is the basis of the entire Indian economy.”

Poor –Rich Divide In the Novel

The White Tiger is singular in its fictionalized portrayal of the relationship between Balaram and his master Mr.Ashok. The story exposes the poor-rich divide that surrounds India in the back drop of economic prosperity, in the wake of the IT revolution. Balaram the killer metamorphoses into his master’s replica after his heinous crime. By crime and cunning, in the name of the social injustice due to existing rich- poor divide in India, Balram rules his entrepreneurial world.


This assignment attempt to trace the great poor- rich divide, manifested through “The White Tiger”, having dangerous conseuuences,if unresolved.

Name: - Italiya Kinjal

Paper:-E-C-404 Mass comm. & Media studies

Topic: - “Cinema” – Impacts of cinema on Indian society

Roll. No: - 09

Submitted to Dr.Dilip Barad

Dept. of English

Bhavnagar Uni.

“Cinema” – Impacts of cinema on Indian society

In this modern age newspapers, motion pictures, radio, television, and magazines, all of which have the technical capacity to deliver information to millions of people. Following the screening of the Lumière moving pictures in London (1895) cinema became a sensation across Europe and by July 1896 the Lumière films had been in show in Bombay. The first full-length motion picture in India was produced by Dadasaheb Phalke, a scholar on India's languages and culture, who brought together elements from Sanskrit epics to produce his Raja Harish Chandra (1913), a silent film in Marathi. Dada Saheb Phalke is considered as the 'father of Indian Cinema'.

Regional Cinema

Hindi cinema

The Hindi language film industry of Mumbai—also known as Bollywood—is the largest and most popular branch of Indian cinema. Hindi cinema initially explored issues of caste and culture in films such as Achhut Kanya (1936) and Sujata (1959).

Gujarati cinema

The film industry of Gujarat started its journey in 1932. Since then Gujarati films immensely contributed to Indian cinema. Gujarati cinema has gained popularity among the regional film industry in India. Gujarati cinema is always based on scripts from mythology to history and social to political. Since its origin Gujarati cinema has experimented with stories and issues from the Indian society. The first Gujarati movie, Narasinh Mehta, was released in the year 1932 and was directed by Nanubhai Vakil.

Bhojpuri cinema

Bhojpuri language films predominantly cater to people who live in the regions of western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. These films also have a large audience in the cities of Delhi and Mumbai due to migration to these metros from the Bhojpuri speaking region. Besides India, there is a large market for these films in other Bhojpuri speaking countries of the West Indies, Oceania, and South America. Bhojpuri language film's history begins in 1962.

Bengali cinema

The Bengali language cinematic tradition has had reputable filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen among its most acclaimed. Recent Bengali films that have captured national attention include Rituparno Ghosh's Choker Bali, starring Aishwarya Rai. Bengali filmmaking also includes Bangla science fiction films and films that focus on social issues. In 1993, the Bengali industry's net output was 57 films.

The social impact of the cinema on Indian society

Violence in the cinema

One of the more controversial areas of study of the cinema is what effect the cinema has on us. This is particularly timely as eyes are on Hollywood and the violent a final theory on the effects of violence in the cinema has evolved out of more recent studies. It is the Cultivation Theory. Rather than predict that we will turn to or from violence, it looks at how we’ll react to the violence. The central assumption of the theory is that in the symbolic world of media, particularly TV, shapes and maintains audience's conception of the real world In other words, the cinema, especially it, creates fantasy world that is mean spirited and dangerous. It also creates stereotypes of dominant/weak folk in society.

Catharsis in cinema

The first of these theories suggests that rather than be harmful violence in the cinema actually has appositive effect on society. The central assumption of the Catharsis Theory is that people, in course of daily life, build up frustrations. Vicarious participation in others' aggressions helps release those tensions. In other words, every day we frustrations in us build up. Without a release valve we risk the chance of becoming violent, or at least aggressive. You do poorly on a test. You have to park to far away from the classroom. Some jerk cuts in front of you on the freeway. You get home and your significant other, or a child, starts demanding your attention. You snap back by yelling or hitting. That counts as violence as much as shooting someone. It is only a matter of degree. The Catharsis theorist would say that by watching violence in the media you release some of that tension and are less likely to be aggressive or violent.

Impact of the cinema on youth

The social impact of the cinema in India is also seen in the nationwide popularity of film-based programs on various television channels. It's mostly the young generation that has been caught up by the film-song programs. Popular film song has gone very deep into the Indian collective memory and conscience. In a nutshell, my presentation will take up some concrete examples of what impact the cinema has on Indian society by and large - including how the classical villain eventually turned into a hero or how social values underwent a certain change. Popular films have even been changing people's dress and hair styles; in Bombay, even shoes would be branded after a box-office hit film. The cinema's social impact is reflected in the way censorship operates in India. In colonial India, the local, police controlled, film censorship, was mainly political in nature, but in post-colonial India it has acquired moralistic overtones; you'll touch upon some recent examples in this realm. We think it's the state that constantly finds itself insecure v/s society at large and artists in particular. All said and done, the cinema hasn't yet shed its mystical hallow in India.

Cinema can impact on our life as we want to have on us. As we all know all films are made on fiction so assume them as fiction story and need not to give them place in our life. From many years cinema was having morale for our life and the people also love them and grasp good values from then as Alam Ara and Raja Harishchandra film of 1935. So it's our will what to accept or not. By cinema is responsible to spoil Indian youth because nowadays film immersed in mud of pornography, stunt, and item song. They do bad impact on our mind. Government should make some strict rule in make film. But it also depends on we people that what is we get from movies something good or bad. According to me movies are not bad or good it is depend on situation that which movie are coming I the market and at that time to take diction by the public that it should be watching or not, because in our country there are two types of audience first who are like to traditional and second are want to only entertainment. With society broadening its mind the movies are getting bolder and bolder. Movies inspire, motivate and improve once understanding of social gestures. But youths are also inspired by seeing those hair raising stunts, smoking (a style statement) and "cool dude" stuffs. However we totally believe its once perspective as to what he absorbs. If a person at a particular stage develops bad habit it need not necessarily be due to movies

Movies already spoiled India and so much of the world, people who do movies or lazy ones and they are the weapon of devil to destroy the world, whatever you see or hear you will think it, after while it shall come become a habit and soon you shall do whatever you think, finally your life will be adjusted with. So don't look or think bad things films or corrupted, When taking on our future (children), we suppose to act that better they (children) don't face the demerits of what we faced in our times from the society. Only then we can call, what we’re doing is development. Movies are created to provide refreshment and recreation to people. Not only for recreation, they create awareness about happenings in our surroundings, but now a day’s movies Have a great impact On not only youth but also on children. Impact mainly depends on us. Any movie will have bad and good ELEMENTS and it is ourselves who should be able to distinguish between them. If we take positive things in a movie we definitely have a positive impact. Nowadays the creation of movies has become completely commercial. Nobody is thinking of the society. They are thinking only about money. There are also movies that make us to wake up. On the other hand the film industry is giving A livelihood to many artistes, technicians etc.

Impact of cinema on children

As a small example for the impact of movies on children

Among all cinemas play a major role in impacting the thinking pattern of children? The question is whether the influence is positive or negative.

Children watching too much of movies and TV during their growing can affect their mental development, health, conversation with adults and their interaction with other children. Children get very much attracted to the roles that involve interesting characters. They try to imitate such roles. When we have 'heroic' characters that are full of mean jokes, deception of drinking and violence; there is no exaggeration in saying that the child is not secure in such environment. Although many movie producers make good movies without violence, many people don't embrace such type of movies. Adults should decrease promoting violent movies and programs. We can see a change in trend from old to new movies. Most of the old films are taken with a goodtheme.ManyT.Vchannels play vital role in exposing a child to unwelcoming ideas like how a criminal attempted to murder, how a victim attempted suicide, how to hit a person in a cruel way or how to accomplish things using violent ways. Thought it is not a good idea to blame on media that they are producing murderers or teen-shooters in schools, if a child decides to go in that direction, media is helping them by teaching how to do it.


Coming to the point of youth, youth is a part of life where we get much to enjoy. In any stage of life we do not have that much power and enthusiasm and also time to watch movies.

Monday, February 6, 2012

Name :- Italiya KInjal
Paper :-E-C-402 ELT-2
Topic  :- EvaluationRoll.No:-  09

Submitted to  Dr.Dilip Barad
Dept. of English
Bhavanagar Uni.


Introduction to Evaluation

                     The concept of evaluation was introduced by B.S.Bloom.Evalution is a gradual and continuous process. Evaluation is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information about teaching and learning in order to make informed decisions that enhance student achievement and the success of educational programmers English language basic texts, that have plain and clear descriptions of what is evaluation, what is it all about, how you can define it. According to J.W.Wrightstone,

“Evolution is a new technical term introduced to design a more comprehensive concept of measurement.”

Meaning of evaluation

                         Evolution is a mean to judge the achievement of the student in the field of education. The measure-ment of achievement is generally done through tests and examinations. Tests are given weekly, fortnightly or monthly, where as examinations are held at the end of a term or a session. A test verities a pupils progress during a specific period of time. Evaluation is a methodological area that is directly related to, but discernible from more traditional social research. Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it requires group skills, management ability of the target language.

Definitions of Evaluation

Probably the most frequently given definition is:

“Evaluation is the systematic assessment of the worth or merit of some object”

                   This definition is hardly perfect. There are many types of evaluations that do not necessarily result in an assessment of worth or merit -- descriptive studies, implementation analyses, and formative evaluations, to name a few. Better perhaps is a definition that emphasizes the information-processing and feedback functions of evaluation. For instance, one might say:

“Evaluation is the systematic acquisition and assessment of information to provide useful feedback about some object”

                             Both definitions agree that evaluation is a systematic endeavor and both use the deliberately ambiguous term 'object' which could refer to a program, policy, technology, person, need, activity, and so on. The latter definition emphasizes acquiring and assessing information rather than assessing worth or merit because all evaluation work involves collecting and sifting through data, making judgments about the validity of the information and of inferences we derive from it, whether or not an assessment of worth or merit results.

The Goals of Evaluation

                          The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide "useful feedback" to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies. Most often, feedback is perceived as "useful" if it aids in decision-making. But the relationship between an evaluation and its impact is not a simple one studies that seem critical sometimes fail to influence short-term decisions, and studies that initially seem to have no influence can have a delayed impact when more congenial conditions arise. Despite this, there is broad consensus that the major goal of evaluation should be to influence decision-making or policy formulation through the provision of empirically-driven feedback.

Types of Evaluatio

                        There are many different types of evaluations depending on the object being evaluated and the purpose of the evaluation. Perhaps the most important basic distinction in evaluation types is that between formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluations strengthen or improve the object being evaluated -- they help form it by examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context, personnel, procedures, inputs, and so on. Summative evaluations, in contrast, examine the effects or outcomes of some object -- they summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object.

Formative evaluation includes several evaluation types:

Ø Needs assessment determines who needs the program, how great the need is, and what might work to meet the need

Ø evaluability assessment determines whether an evaluation is feasible and how stakeholders can help shape its usefulness

Ø structured conceptualization helps stakeholders define the program or technology, the target population, and the possible outcomes

Ø implementation evaluation monitors the fidelity of the program or technology delivery

Ø process evaluation investigates the process of delivering the program or technology, including alternative delivery procedures

Summative evaluation can also be subdivided:

Ø Outcome evaluations investigate whether the program or technology caused demonstrable effects on specifically defined target outcomes

Ø Impact evaluation is broader and assesses the overall or net effects -- intended or unintended -- of the program or technology as a whole

Ø cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis address questions of efficiency by standardizing outcomes in terms of their dollar costs and values

Ø secondary analysis reexamines existing data to address new questions or use methods not previously employed

Ø meta-analysis integrates the outcome estimates from multiple studies to arrive at an overall or summary judgment on an evaluation question

These are four following steps in evaluation. They are also applicable to the Teaching of English.

1) Determining the educational objectives.

2) Organinging learning experiences to change the behavior of pupils according to the educational objectives.

3) Measurement of the behavioral change

4) Referring the measurement of educational objectives.
The objectives of teaching English have been discussed in it. Organizing the learning experience for behavioral change, there should be objective based lesson planning for the management of the behavioral change, the following devices are used:-

a) Observation
b) Interview
c) Questionnaire
d) Check-list
e) Creative words,e.g. students,painting,poems
f) Examination with objective test items:- this can be oral and written. The oral and written examinations contain objective test items

Test Item 1

Ø Objective : knowledge

Ø Specification : discrimination

Ø Topic : elements of knowledge

Ø Sub-topic : sentence structure

Ø Marks: 1

Ø Direction : fill in the gaps:

I………….going to the market. I met………………one old friend of mine

Test Item 2

Ø Objective : knowledge

Ø Specification : recognition
Ø Topic : elements of language

Ø Sub-topic : vocabulary

Ø Marks: 1

Ø Direction : Guava is a…………

a) Cereal,

b) Vegetable,

c) Fruit.

Test Item3

Column I column II

1. Delhi ( ) A. water present in the air.

2. Calcium ( ) B. pioneer of nursing.

3. Tagor ( ) C. Discovery of India.

4. Florence Nightingale ( ) D. The capital of India

5. Water- vapour ( ) E. Noble prize

6. Jawaharlal ( ) F.Builds strong bones and teeth

G. Indian bird.

Test Item4

I) the word which qualifies a noun is called………..

II) The poem “Slave Dream” was written by………

III) The opposite of “Honesty” is………..

Test Item5

A. Oliver Twists was on ……… . As an orphan………. Lived in a workhouse. The …………officers treated him very badly. They did not…….

B. Oliver was looked up at once, and next…….a notice was put up on the ……..of the gate, offering a……..of five pounds to anybody who……Oliver of the hands of the………..

                         The teacher should present a complete test by preparing a blue-print which gives the rationale and the planning of the test. After the measurement of behavioral change, it should be determined whether the said objectives have been achieved or not. In this way, evaluation is a long continuous and qualitative process.  Formulating and conceptualizing methods might be used including brainstorming, focus groups, nominal group techniques, Delphi methods, brain writing, stakeholder analysis, synaptic, lateral thinking, input-output analysis, and concept mapping. The most common method used here is "needs assessment" which can include: analysis of existing data sources, and the use of sample surveys, interviews of constituent populations, qualitative research, expert testimony, and focus groups. Some of the methods already listed apply here, as do detailing methodologies like simulation techniques, or multivariate methods like multiattribute utility theory or exploratory causal modeling; decision-making methods; and project planning and implementation methods like flow charting. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring techniques, the use of management information systems, and implementation assessment would be appropriate methodologies here.Evaluability assessment can be used here, as well as standard approaches for selecting an appropriate evaluation design. One would choose from observational and correlation methods for demonstrating whether desired effects occurred, and quasi-experimental and experimental designs for determining whether observed effects can reasonably be attributed to the intervention and not to other sources.

                        The distinctions between planning and evaluation are not always clear; this cycle is described in many different ways with various phases claimed by both planners and evaluators. Usually, the first stage of such a cycle  the planning phase  is designed to elaborate a set of potential actions, programs, or technologies, and select the best for implementation. Depending on the organization and the problem being addressed, a planning process could involve any or all of these stages: the formulation of the problem, issue, or concern; the broad conceptualization of the major alternatives that might be considered; the detailing of these alternatives and their potential implications; the evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of the best one; and the implementation of the selected alternative. The evaluation phase also involves a sequence of stages that typically includes: the formulation of the major objectives, goals, and hypotheses of the program or technology; the conceptualization and operationalization of the major components of the evaluation  the program, participants, setting, and measures; the design of the evaluation, detailing how these components will be coordinated; the analysis of the information, both qualitative and quantitative; and the utilization of the evaluation results.