Thursday, October 14, 2010


TOPIC   :   Evaluation of Tom Jones as a
                      mock heroic epic.”
  NAME     :   Italiya kinjal.B     
ROLL NO:  02
SEM -1: M.A. PART-1
BATCH:  2010-2011

SUBMITTED TO:  Mr. Jay Mehta.
Department of English, Bhavnagar University.

Evaluation of Tom Jones as a mock heroic epic:-
              Tom Jones is a comic epic in prose and it is not. It is a comic epic in prose by virtue of its classical approach ,its width and rambling narration, and it is not because it has a secret, as pointed out by a critic, and epic has no secret. But let us examine Tom Jones as ‘comic epic in prose’.
                Enjoying the freedom of an artist he burst on the literary scene giving thousands of hours for writing the epic called Tom Jones. The bulk of the novel is a challenge to an epic. We cannot possibly call pride and prejudice or great Expectations an epic because of their concentrated action and small area of movement, where as Tom Jones moves on rambling to any distance. An epic is an honest narrative with a plain design where in the characters assert their personality with a moral ardour.The writer of an epic is not much of an artist I the sense that he neither hides facts nor knith surprising situations .He overawes a reader by virtue of certain classical heaviness, and we are made to applaud the hero or the heroine for their sacrifice or sum extraordinary performances. Fielding does not attempt Tom Jones in the pure style of an epic. He makes the novel a crossbred genre of writing in which we find the width of an epic and the cunning of a novelist. It is not a pure epic thought it has the appearances and the design of its style.
Fielding in his book II ch-I of Tom Jones declares about the approach in writing the novel in the following words:”I am in reality the founder of a new province of writing, so I am at liberty to make laws I please therein.”The writer is certainly at liberty to enjoy a unique freedom and this freedom has been employed profitably for giving us a novel with all semblance of an epic. The movement of the novel has the speed of an epic. The story goes on revealing new facts; the incidents many and varied come and go. But Tom Jones is something even greater than an epic in the sense it knits plot on the basis of novel as such the novel eludes any classification. Roughly we may call it an epic or a novel bit actually it would be difficult to classify it under one single heading. We cannot possibly be precise about its nature. It is an amalgam of both deriving its matter and approach from both the novel and the epic.
                An epic is not a history or a biography though it may well contain the life events of a memorable personage   for all his heroism, but our Tom Jones his history a kind  of fictitious  biography of the most ‘un heroic hero’.He writes about the conception of history of a person the spinal chord of the novel in the following manner :”such histories as these do in reality very much resemble a newspaper which consists of just the same number of words….they may likewise be compared to a stage coach which performs constantly the same course empty as well as full”.(Book II ch I Tom jone)
        Fielding’s  accent  on the ‘history’  of  Tom Jones makes this works of art veer from the epic proper, but luckily  at the same time the atmosphere a commons of social life, he builds about the novel is obviously analogs analogous to that of an epic. The biography of a fictitious person is placed in the social orbit of a classical design where in his movement and sections take place. But Tom Jones UN like the hero of an epic has not been idealizes. He is of an ‘average’ type and thus he most shares the limitations of an ordinary mortal. He despot appears on the scene with fan fare of glory or in any impressive manner. He happens to be an illegitimately begotten brute a foundling discovered in the bed of Mr.Allworthy.The conception of an epic is different. It is a different story altogether if he comes before us as a tragic hero suffering in the life but he has all the dignity of a man. But the fielding reverses he position though not in the case of the heroine called Sophia. The unheroic hero appears on the scene with all his social indignity and the heroine    no doubt appears with an ‘Elevation of stile’. Since it is a comic epic such a hero may be allowed to past as such.
                Tom Jones   is a comic epic indeed by virtue of the humorous situations and humorous characters. In this epic thought beforehand to introduce a considerable character on the scene (book IV ch-I).”Thus the hero is always introduce with a flourish of drums and trumpets…our intention in short  is to  introduce our heroine with the utmost solemnity in our power with a an elevation of stile”. But the hero passes through such situations which excite us and often set us rolling with laughter. This mock epic lifts characters bodily from life and though the narrative is in a lighter vein unlike an epic of a serious nature the points of virtue brought home.
                Tom Jones is an epic of human nature written in a comic style.”Man therefore is the highest subject which presents itself to the pen of our historian or of our poet”. Fielding in this so called epic comes to dwell upon human nature what pertains to a man on this planet. He of court inter priest life through medium of humour.Tom Jones may not be ideal from the point of view of the orthodox opinion because of the aberrations but as an average being he represents all that is good in a man particularly from the point of view of magnanimity. There is an unconventional accent upon human goodness in the novel which is different from the pure ideals of epic. An epic is a tell of human virtue and so is Tom Jones but in it virtue becomes as it were an object of sight.
                The study of human nature is superb in this novel   written after the style of an epic. Fielding has a clear cut idea about it. He writes in his book I ch-I of Tom Jones in the following words:”The provision then which we have tear made is no other then human nature…That in human    nature though here collected under one comparatively  smaller scope for dwelling on human nature than the epic. The latter happens to be a sizable work therefore it offers a more comprehensive scope for it.
                But the accent on human nature is not the primary consideration in an epic. It mostly deals with the glorification of a hero and shows a tendency of selection the part which elevates the character in our esteem. There is hardly any approach to the psychological depth in it. In Tom Jones the writer probes deep into a human character in ‘dressing up’ with a consummate ‘author’s skill.’
                To sum up Tom Jones is partly an epic and partly a novel. It exhibits a cross-bred style in which we find the fusion of two. It is no doubt a comic epic in prose by virtue of its humorous approach. The tone of the novel is suggestive of a light manner but it carries heavy message like that an epic. This is not an epic of a conventional type as fielding veers, being the founder of s new province of writing to incorporate what is germane to the writing of a novel. He covers a double ground. The novel has all the dimensions of an epic, but the way in which he treats the story is that of a novelist. An epic happens to be artlessly simples in approach though heavy in its classical appeal but Tom Jones is not artlessly simple. The undercurrents and the art which he employs with the cunning of a novelist make him deviate from the writing of the epic. It has the pretensions of an epic by virtue of its width but not by virtue of the transcription of life to the pages of the book and its psychological depth. As such Tom Jones eludes all classifications and it does not come precisely under any head. It is partly a novel and partly an epic. A serious attempt though a comic medium has been made by him to depict true nature and in an epic there is invariably an accent upon the glorification of a hero. The position of the unheroic here in the book forfeits the claim of its being called an epic


TOPIC   :   “Role of Brutus in Julius caesar.”
NAME     :   Italiya kinjal.B
ROLL NO:  02
SEM -1: M.A. PART-1
BATCH:  2010-2011

SUBMITTED TO:  Mr. Jay Mehta.
Department of English, Bhavnagar University.

(1) Role of Brutus in Julius Caesar.
  There is no doubt at all that Brutus in Shakespeare's play appears to be more of an idealist than a practical man. An idealist is generally out of touch with the practical realities of life. An idealist lives in a world of ideas without being able to understand the actual workings of the human mind. An idealist takes too high a view of human nature, with the result that he misjudges human beings in the course of his dealings with them and therefore has to face disappointment and failure. An idealist is by definition a high minded and noble-minded man who thinks others to be also high-minded and noble-minded. An idealist takes people at their face value, without realizing that most people in this world are hypocrites and are governed by selfishness. An idealist tends to believe what other people tell him, and he trusts them implicitly. Brutus certainly belongs to the category of idealistic persons; and that is the reason why he meets a tragic end in the play. His very joining the conspiracy is a mistake from the practical point of view because he does not even pause to think how he would cope with the problems of the government after Caesar has been assassinated. It never occurs to him consider who would take Caesar's place as the ruler of the country. Perhaps subconsciously he imagines that he would himself take the reins of power in his own hands; but he does not anywhere make this opinion or view of himself explicit because he has not considered it consciously or deliberately.
Brutus's Errors of Policy before the Assassination of Caesar
       In the course of the discussion with Cassius and others, Brutus rejects some very sound suggestions which Cassius makes. Brutus's rejection of these proposals shows clearly the idealistic bent of his mind and his incapacity to understand the realities of human life and human nature. Cassius suggests that they should swear their resolve to murder Caesar; but Brutus says that an oath is not necessary; and he then goes on to make a long idealistic speech to prove that the hard conditions of life under Caesar are in themselves enough to force them to kill Caesar without the need of any oath. Brutus shows his idealism also in saying that every Roman is an honorable man, and that not a single Roman, who is the legitimate offspring of his parents, can ever behave in a dishonorable manner or ever break a promise. To hold such a view of all the Romans shows a sad want of common sense in Brutus. Then, by China, and by Metallic Climber; and yet Brutus rejects Cassius suggests that Cicero should also be invited to join the conspiracy, and Cassius's proposal is supported by Casco this proposal also. Saying that Cicero would not follow anything which other men have begun. This attitude is a great blunder on Brutus's part because Cicero would have proved very useful to the conspirators as an orator to sway the minds of the mob. But Brutus's greatest blunder at this time is to reject Cassius suggestion that Antony should also be killed along with Caesar. Cassius is a practical man who knows Antony's potentialities for mischief; but Brutus says that killing Antony, in addition to killing Caesar, would make them appear to be too bloody. Killing Antony in addition to killing Caesar would mean cutting the head off and then cutting the limbs also, says Brutus. Brutus further says that Antony is merely to be butchers and not sacrifices. Here again Brutus makes an idealistic speech to prove that the murder of Antony would be wrong. If Antony had been murdered, there would probably have been no civil war in the country. It is Antony who afterwards creates turmoil in Rome by inciting the mob against the conspirators.
His Errors after the Assassination of Caesar
After Caesar’s assassination, Brutus commits other blunders. He quickly accepts Antony’s offer of friendship, and readily discusses with him the terms of an agreement between him and the conspirators. Here Brutus shows himself to be too conciliatory. Here he is on the defensive instead of asserting his own view with regard to the murder of Caesar. He not only agrees to give Antony the reasons for the murder of Caesar but goes so far as to permit Antony to address the mob; and he does so against the express advice of Cassius. After himself addressing the mob, Brutus departs, leaving the field clear for Antony. This is another error of judgment. Antony then proceeds to exploit the situation and being a good orator, he is able to instigate the mob against the conspirators. Of coerce, Brutus’s greatest blunder was not to have agreed to the killing of Antony; but the next greatest blunder of his public life is to allow Antony to address the mob after Caesar has been assassinated.
His Errors an Army Commander
 Then follow other blunders. Brutus is, from the practical point of view, certainly wrong in taking action against the military officer who has been taking bribes from the Sardines. Morally Brutus is right; but, as Cassius points out to him, every small offence should not be punished during the time of war. Brutus also goes too far in bringing a charge of corruption against Cassius himself. Then he commits a blunder in not heeding Cassius’s advice that they should wait at Sardis and let the enemy launch an attack upon them. Brutus insists that they should march to Philippi, and should themselves take the initiative in attacking the enemy. This proves to be wrong strategy, as Cassius had anticipated. There would have been some possibility of a victory for the conspirators if they had waited at Sardis and allowed the enemy to launch an attack upon them. Later, in the coerce of the battle, Brutus at one point gives an order to his troops to begin an attack; and this order proves to be premature. After his troops have gained some advantage over Octavos, his troops begin to plunder the property of the local people, thus creating confusion for Cassius’s troops. Brutus fails as a military commander in the same way as he had previously failed as a political leader.
His Idealism and His Philosophic Temperament, Behind His Errors
It is no exaggeration to say that the public career of Brutus is a series of errors and blunder. His errors as a political leader are a direct consequence of his idealistic attitude to life and his lack of understanding of human nature; and his failure as a military commander is due to the fact that he is by nature more of a thinker and a philosopher than a man of action or a strategist.


TOPIC   :   Features of metaphysical poetry
                  in John Donne.”
  NAME     :   Italiya kinjal.B     
ROLL NO:  02
SEM -1: M.A. PART-1
BATCH:  2010-2011

SUBMITTED TO:  Mr. Jay Mehta.
Department of English, Bhavnagar University.

Features of metaphysical poetry in John Donne: ~

            Life: ~ the briefest outline of Donne’s life shows its intense human interest. He was born in LONDON, The son of a rice iron merchant, at the time when the merchants of ENGLAND where creating a new and higher kind of princes. On his father's side he came from an old welsh family, and on his mother’s side from the Heywood’s and sir Thomas mores’ family. Both families were catholic; his own education could not be countinuedin OXFORD and CAMBRIDGE because of his religion. He studied low at LINCOLN'S INN, was investigating the philosophic grounds of all faith. He started write poetry in 1596-1597.Two of his best poems, “THE STORM"and"THE CALM”, belong to this period. In his entire work one finds a mystery, a hiding of sum deep thing which the world would gladly know and share, and which is suggested in his haunting little poem, “THE UNDERTAKING":

The Elizabethan Tradition: Its Decadence:~
           By the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century the great Elizabethan poetry had exhausted itself .Signs of decadence were visible everywhere. There were three traditions that were generally followed the Spenserian, the Arcadian and the petrarchian,Every thing was conventional and artificial, there was little that was original or emarkable.There was much sugared melody and rhyming extravagance, But intellectual emptiness. In the first decades of the 17th century there was a revolt against the outdated and exhausted Elizabethan poetry. As C.S.Lewis puts it"Metaphysicism in poetry is the fruit of the Renaissance tree becoming over ripe and approaching putrescence". 

Revolt against It: ~
               The leader of this revolt was Ben Jonson and John Donne. Both of them were forceful personalities who attracted staunch Followers and and founded schools. The first, Ben Jonson-The founder of the classical school which reached its full Flowering in the poetry of Dryden and pope-Was primarily a dramatist. As a poet he profoundly influenced the Caroline lyrists. The other is John Donne. His poetry is remarkable for its concentrated passion, intellectual agility and dramatic power. He is given to introspection and self-analysis: He writes but of his own intellectual, spiritual and amorous experiences. His curly satyrs, his songs and sonnets. His Holy sonnets escape all different expressions of his varied experiences. His poetry is marked with a tone of realism, even cynicism, but it is an always forceful and startliny.He is the founder of the so called "Metaphysical school”, of poetry, of which Richard Crashaw, George Herbert, Henry Vaughan and Abraham Cowley are. The other lyric poets. 

The metaphysical school: ~
·      Literally 'META'means"Beyond" and "Physics"means"Physical nature “It was Dryden who first used the word,"Metaphysical"in connection with Donne’s poetry and wrote, “Donne affects the Metaphysics “and Dr.John son confirmed the judgment of Dryden.Eversince the word, Metaphysical has been used for Donne and his Followers.However,the term is an unfortunate one, for it implies a process of dry reasoning, a speculation about the nature of the universe, the problems of life and death,etc.Milton's Paradise Lost, pope’s Essay on Man, and even Tennyson's In memoriam may be called Metaphysical poems for they are concerned with the nature of thinks Donne's poetry is not Metaphysical poems is long,Whild Donne's poems are all short. His poetry does not expound any philosophical system of the universe; rather it is as much concerned with his emotions and personal Experiences, as any other poetry. No doubt, she is much intellectual analysis of "emotions"and,"experience", but this by itself cannot be called Metaphysical. The poetry its content is concerned but as greisens puts it "Donne is Metaphysical not only by virtue of his scholasticism, but by his deep reflective interest in the experiences of which his poetry is the expression, the new psychological curiosity with which he writes of love and religion.

Metaphysical Imagery &Conceit ?:~
      In other words, Donne’s poetry may be called,'Metaphysical'only in as far as its technique, or style is concerned. It is heavily over loaded with conceits which may be defined as the excessive use of over elaborated similes an Metaphors, drawn from the most farfetched, remote an unfamiliar sources.Dr.John son defines of conceit as the perception of, “Occult resemblances in things apparently unlike."Poets have always perceived similarity between dissimilar objects and used similes and metaphors to convey their perception of that similarity. The peculiarity of the metaphysical lies in the fact that (1) they use figures of speech excessively (2) their similes and metaphors are far fetched and are often drawn from unfamiliar sources (3) their figures are elaborated to the far farthest limit(4)the relationship they perceive are occult. Hay are not obvious on the face of nature (5) their images are logical and intellectual rather than sensuous for emotional.

     Similarly Donne and the other metaphysical poets use words which call the mind into play, rather than those which speaker to the senses or "Evoke an emotional response though memory “they use words which have no associative value. This intellectual bias affects the forms of there. Poems and their rhytham.In their "conseits”theyconstantly bring together the abstract and the concrete, the remote and the near, the spiritual and the material, the finite and the infinite, the sublime and the commonplace. Thus Donne drowse his imagery from such varied sources as medieval theology, scholastic philosophy, the Ptolemaic astronomy of the middle ages, and the concepts of cotemporary sciences. His mind moves with great agility from one such concept to another, and it requires an equal agility on the part of the readers to follow him. Hence the difficult nature of his poetry, and hence the charge of obscurity that has been brought against him widely divergent elements are “yoked by violence together,”(Johnson)and the effect, as even sympathetic critics like Greisens and Joanbannett have recognized often fantastic. The difficulty of the readers is further increased by the extreme condensation and density of Donne’s poetry.

Fantastic Conceits and Hyperboles:~
           The fantastic nature of the ‘metaphysical conceits’ and poetry would become clear; if we examine a few example: in valediction; for hiding mourning, true lovers, now parted, are linked to the legs of a compass. The image is elaborated at length. The lovers are still spiritually one, just as the head of the compass is one even when the legs are apart. One leg remains fixed and the other moves round it. The lover cannot forget the beloved even when separated from her. The two lovers meet together again, as soon the circle has been drawn. Similarly in the flea, Donne deduces every kind of consequence from the fact that a flea hopes from biting him to suck his mistress's blood. He will not let her kill the creature in which their blood has mingled, and which is therefore, their bridal bed, “the temple of their wedding”. In such passages, even Donne, the greatest of the metaphysical lapses in to the ridiculous at the fantastic. At other times he uses equally extravagant hyperbioles.For example he mistakes then an Engel would be pro vanity.

Language Versification:~
         As has already been mentioned above Donne's poetry is poetry of revolt against the worn-out conventions of the day. He seeks for originality and newness and he achieves it in different ways. He seeks it through the use of farfetched and fantastic conceits. Logouts rightly remarks, “He will have nothing to do wither the easy and familiar mythological imagery: he turns out the company of the god's and goddesses and rejects the spoils of Greek and Latin poetry."He uses the natural language of men not when they are “emotionally excited “but when they are engaged in commerce or in scientific speculations. It is a 'new vocabulary ' he uses a vocabulary with no 'associative value’ and entirely different from from the poetic language of the Elizabethans. He wants to convey his meanings exactly and precisely and searches for verbal equivalents for emotional states, and this search often results in the use of the archaic and the strange. We do not find in him any of the 'sugared melody' of the peararchans; He violates every known rule of rhyme, meter and versification. As Ben Jonson puts it "Donne for not keeping of accent deserved hanging."His rhymes give a jar and jolt to the reader; they administer a shock to him and make him think by their very violence.
 Abrupt, colloquial openings: wit:~
        It is for this very reason that he often begins his poems abruptly as in the canonization:
                          For God's sake hold your tongue, and let me love,
                                    Elsewhere, he begins on a bitter not,
                           When by thy scorned, o’ murderess I am dead     
And then proceeds to tell her what terrors his ghost would cause to her after his death. Donne's witticism, too, has a similar purpose, startle and surprise. His wit is not merely, “what off was thought but never so well expressed”, but what was. “Seldom so thought and never so well expressed"."The king's real and his stamped farce," and the passage about the phoenix in the canonization, its. Are relevant examples. Donne surprises and arrests attention both by the content and style of his poetry.
Unification of Sensibility: ~
       In Donne’s poetry, there is always an intellectual analysis of emotion. Every lyric arise out of some emotional situation, and the emotion concerned is analysed thresdbare.Like a clever lawyer Donne gives arguments after arguments in support of his point of view.Thus in valediction: forbidding Mourning  he proves that true lovers need not mourn at the time of parting; in the canonization he establishes that lovers are  saints of love; and in the Blossomed he argues against that patrician love tradition.
He has been well said his poetry presents a “drama of ideas”. His lyrics are dramatic. A poem of Donne is a piece of drama.


 Paper:-  2

Name:-Italiya Kinjal B.
M.A:- Part-[I]
English Department
Roll No:-20
Paper No:-2
Topic:-The story of my Experiments with truth

                              Guide By:-Devarshi sir

Q-1 .Describe’ the story of my experiments with truth

Autobiography is also a form of literature. It is an art. The narrator knows what to put and what not. He takes eare of reader’s interest. Merely tact is not important but its impression on his self and its motive to tell become chief objects. The writer should keep in mind his openness. And boldness to reveal the self. Gloryfyimg one’s own personality shouldn’t be. The parpose but shaping of the person lacy certainly would make a good work. In this light Gandhi’s autobiography should be seen.
Gandhi’s life reflection:-
       “The story of my exprimates with truth” is the story of Gandhi’s life reflection. It the desenbes his birth, parents, child hood his growth education,marriage,settlements going.abroad,coming back to India, and involvemeut into various political movements.butthe book does not stress on these aspects only Gandhi recollects well. From his father and Forefather the family members and some of his friends we are told his liking and disliking love,taults and strugglers,pains its which put him into certain given silt atians. It is a remarkable thing that likes a common human being his life begins and plenty of enperiencees show him feeling and behaving like us.
Mohan to Mahatma:-
Man named Mohan was no different than others, in action and the work is nothing but showing a process of transformation of a common man “Mamatma”.He Mohandas was born to a common Kathiawar bania banyan family. He passed his child hood in porabandar in Gujarat. He was a dull student and remained shy boy but some of the values were there, which were truth and openness. The home made some influences of being obedieut, religious .As it was custom he was married early and passed s.s.c known at that time matriculation. To study law he went to England. He had neither zeal nor interest in it. The net result of it was that when he passed the degree he had no knowledge. He had no courage or ability to adopt the profession for livelihood. During the settlement in life, often his soul remained in physical pleasures. Eating, good clothes attracted too. Influence of western world is clearly seen. Like a common husband he many times treated the wife and children.Inshort a reaction and in feelings and thinking.
 But the story begins then. This Mohan began to realize the world. He thought of his practice as a lawyer and responsibility to maintain home. This was the beginning. He began to read intensively and extensively. He begun to have experiences inspirations and guidelines and acquainting with known personalities. This slowly increased confidence. He realized his capacity. Knowledge increased as well. Efforts of self realization entangled him. The truth of life began to dawn on him. He made the religion of service his own as he felt that God could be realized importance of “Brahmacharya”. The carnal desire was going slowly. He showed faith in God. He found it not as process of hard penance, but a matter of consolation and joy. Service to humanity was another mean. Which he found out. Work is worship was now blended with love to humanity. This is known as “Satyagraha”. The whole African life shows the practice of it. “Unto this Last “a book of English writer Ruskin became the foundation. In India, this practice was carried on till the last. Leadership was now established with his weapon of ‘Ahimsa’. Service, love, Satyagraha, brahmacharya mingled in to ‘Ahimsa’. Through it he began to win unknown territories. Weather India or Africa his belief s worked and brought success. Hindu –Muslim unity, spirituality, food and dieting practices, medical beliefs, economic opinions, village and poor reformations became his passion. Success in all this brought him glory. Through ups and downs, pain and pleasure, in private and public his continuous efforts changed not his self completely but the people, a societies and countries.This is change in Mohan that made him ‘Mahatma’. A collosalwork
Is difficult to measure through comman manly tools. A man like au becomes and angel.       
   Mohandas: - The hero? Or the truth?
Mohandas Gandhi is the hero of the book,’ the story of my exp…’. The book narrates his self. As we have noticed ‘Mohan’ becomes ‘Mahatma’. This isn’t a small task. The process is life longer and hard achieved through labor, patience truth and knowledge and so many others qualities we come to know him as a simple man. but at the end there‘s no Mohan. The autobiography shows his manly attitude and practices out of which he emerges as the Hero. But it is not important. If anything is there, it is truth. So rather than considering him as the Hero we should consider truth as the Hero.
                 Gandhi gave priority to truth in the preface he wrote
                “But for me, truth is the sovereign principle, which includes numerous other principles. This truth is not only truthfulness in word but truthfulness in thought.
        He also wrote;-
                “t hundreds like me perish. But let truth prevails. Let us not reduce the standard of truth even by a hair’s breadth for judging erring mortals like myself.
        Thus it is dear he is not the Hero but truth is. The story is related to truth .There are experiments with truth. In pain too he sticks to this principles Socrates said to this principles. Socrates said knows thyself Gandhi did the same?
Various Experiments:-
                Gandhi continued to find out truth. He tried all the means possible. Experiments with water, Earth and food and deistic are notable treating his son in the fear of losing him, He insisted on water treatment. Finally it serves the purpose. Faith in God was put to test but it was restored. His earth treatments too are remarkable. While living in England, for food, his Experiments are many and loess everything. He also explains others to follow. HE goes up to that extent of donating a handsome account to open vegetarian restaurant. Regarding milk he was doutful.First of all the doesn’t favor it but his experiments later on changes. He confesses his mistakes and favors it. He feels one time for having taken goat’s milk during the vow.  
                        To understand the life much more he begins to decrease dieting. Then it comes to the matter of turniturs.Household  things and other needs are reduced.Living in a small village and getting only that amount of living show his firm beelines’ that for one’s desire the wife shouldn’t be counted a toy. The desire must perish from within. After many trials he is able to win it
      Experiments in non-violence, brahmacharya, meager living yoga and spirituality are various and they become natural too him. He is so much absorbed that he even forgets himself. His forwarding clearly says “My purpose being to give an account of various practical applications of these principals……..I propose to write the title of “My Experiments with Truth.”
Multiple Personality:-
Gandhi was known as ‘Fakir’ is the word which suggests his humble personality. His physically he was not attractive but his mental spiritual strength and deeds made him a’Mahatma’.He was of downtrodden and a remained bold, simple, frank, sincere and a follower of non-violence and truth. Morality was his base stone, which he acquired during his childhood Years. The great Indian epics and other books changed him. This gave him ‘Ahimsa’ and ‘Truth’, Honesty, simplicity remained guiding principles.
                Various facets of his personality could be seen in different fields of education, Economics, Philosophy and in reforming the public life. As a writer, too, his contribution is notable all combined together make in a man of high morals and integrated character. In all this his minulity, politeness lone, He is found a noble, humble man.
Struggle & Success:-
              The autobiography shows us Gandhi’s internal and external struggle with the life and in finding truth. Since his childhood he was tasted now and then. Often we saw him plunged in despair but it wouldn’t last long. His caste opposed him while he decided to go to abroad. His wife resisted learning. The family is unable to adopt his ways. Lust pervaded him. European influence changed him. His experiments of water, earth and die tics really tested him much. When he starts living eager life, problems are in the family. These are family problems but in public life too he suffered. The most painful is about train journey in Africa, Which gave him power to resist the rale.Africans; natines.Enlish people caused him plenty of troules.In India too. Including Indians many pained him. Yet this was strong, ironed man bore everything defied the result resisted with dignity and came out vietoriously.A common might have forsaken everything and might have led peaceful happy life but this man never thought of them except peace and  happiness of others.
                Thus the strong is around experiments. They are related truth personal and public life is involved in it. He is changed and he is the came of change. The work is a true reflection of the same



TOPIC   :   An Essay of Dramatic poetry:  
                   John Dryden: Brief Summary.”
  NAME     :   Italiya kinjal.B     
ROLL NO:  02
SEM -1: M.A. PART-1
BATCH:  2010-2011

SUBMITTED TO:  Dr.Barad sir
Department of English, Bhavnagar University.

An Essay of Dramat
ic poetry: John Dryden: Brief Summary:-
              The dialogue begins with critics’ complaining about two types of “bad” English poets: the first are the poets who “perpetually pay us with clenches upon words and a certain clownish kind of raillery”, (bad metaphysical?) and the second is he who “affects plainness to cover his want of imagination” (bad puritans?) He goes on to suggest that no one writing can surpass the ancients or even the previous generation of English writers, to which Eugeniusz responds that he might be rejecting everything recent just because it is recent. The debate begins in earnest when the four decide that they will”limit their dispute” to a discussion of dramatic poesy and whether the “ancients were superior to the moderns.” Additionally, they must decide on definition of what a play should be.Lisideius  offers the agreed  upon terms: Just and lively image of human nature, representing its passions and humors, and the changes of fortune to which it is subject, for the delight and instruction of mankind.
                     Crites develops the main points in defending the ancients and the objections to modern plays. The moderns are still imitating the ancients and  using their forms and subjects, relying  on Aristotle and Horace,adding nothing new and yet not following their good  advice closely enough, especially with  respect to the unities of time, place and action. While the unity of time suggests that all the action should be portrayed within a single day, English plays attempt to use long periods of time, sometimes years. In terms of place, the setting should be the same from beginning to end with the scenes marked by the entrances and exits of the persons having business within each. The English, on the other hand, try to have all kinds of places, even far off countries, shown within a single play. The third unity that of action requires that the play “aim at one great and complete action”, but the English have all kinds of sub-plots which destroy the unity of the action. In anticipating the objection that the ancients’ language is not as vital  as the moderns, crates say that we have to remember that we are probably missing a lot  of subtleties because the languages are dead and the customs far removed from this time. Rites use Ben Jonson as an example of the best in English drama, saying that he followed the ancients “in all things” and offered nothing really new in terms of “serious thoughts”.
                     Eugeniusz responds that though “the moderns have profited by the rules of the ancients” they have “excelled them”. He points first to some discrepancies in the applications of the unities, mentioning that there seem to be four parts in Aristotle’s method:  the entrance, the intensifying of the plot, the counter-turn, and the catastrophe. But he points out that somewhere along the line, and by way of Horace, plays developed five acts. As far as the action , Eugeniusz contends  that  they are transparent, everybody already knows what will happen; that  the Romans borrowed from the Greeks; and that the ancients wren’s the ones to insist on it  so much as  the French and  that insistence has caused some artificial  entrances and exits  of characters. The unity of time is often ignored in both. As to the  liveliness of language,Eugenius  counters  crates  by  suggesting that  even if we don’t  know all  the contexts, good writing is always good, wit is always discernible If done well . He goes on to say also that while the ancients portrayed many emotions and action, they neglected love.” Which is? Wit is always discernible. If done well. He goes on to say also that while the ancients portrayed many emotion and actions, they neglected love.” Which is the most frequent of all passions” and Known to everyone.He mentions Shakespeare and Fletcher as offering” excellent scenes of passion.”
                     Lisideius’ discussion of the French follows. He declares them the best of all Europe because of their adherence to the unities and the most important point here is that they maintain the unity of an action by not adding confusing sub-plots. Here he begins the discussion of the English tragic- comedy. Which he calls “absurd”. He commends the French as well for basing their tragedies on “some known history,” that in this way fiction is combined with reality so that some truth can be revealed. He compares Shakespeare’s history plays, saying that “they are rather so many chronicles of kings,” years of history packed into a 2 1 /2 hour play so that the point is lost. He reports that the French do several things much better than the English. First, they keep the plot to one action which they then develop fully where the English add all kinds of actions that don’t always fallow from the main one. The French also focus on one main character and all the characters have sum connection with him and have a purpose that advance the plot .Additionally, the French use narrations (reporting by the character s)to describethings that happen, like battles and deaths that lisideius says ridiculous when shown on stage.”The represention”of incidents that cannot be portrayed as realistic possible or believable anyway are better omitted. This goes I think to the issue of decorum since he says”som parts of the action are more fit to be represented, some to be related”. Further he says the French never end their plays with”conversions”or”changes of will “without setting up the proper justification for it. The English by contrast show their characters having changes of heart that are over reactions to the circumstances and therefore not beklievable.Also in the French plays, the character never come in or leave a scene without the proper justifications being supplied. Finally he compliments the “Beauty of their rhyme” suggesting that it would help English poetry, though he doesn’t think there’s anyone capable of doing it properly.
              Neander has the last word, suggesting that based on the definition of a play.English are best at “the lively imitation of nature” (human nature), conceding that while French poesy is beautiful: it is beautiful like a”statue”.He even say that the newer French writers are imitating the English. One fault he finds in their plots is that the regularity, which has been complimented as uncluttered, also makes the plays too much alike. He defends the English invention of traffic-comedy by suggesting that the use of mirth with tragedy provides “contraries “that “set each other offhand give the audience relief from the plays interesting and help the main acting. Further, he suggests they English   plays are more entertaining and instructive because they offer an element of surprise the t tee ancients and the French    do not. As far as decorum things the French choose not to portray on stage he brings up the idea of the suspension of disbelief. The audience knows none of it is real why should they think sconces  of death or battles any less”real”then the rest ?i think here he credits the English  audience  with a cretin robustness in the suggesting that they want their battles and “other objects of horror”. Ultimately in discussing the English habit of breaking the rules. He suggests that it may be there are simply too many rules and often that following then creates more absurdities than they prevent.
              At the end of essay a discussion of the proper use of rhyme and verse ensues mostly between crates who want to eliminate the use of rhyme while he sees as sounding artificial. And meander who says if you want to eliminate rhyme on that basis why not verse on the same grounds.Neander suggest that comedy should not be rhymed but that the heroic tragedy should be. To crite’s charge that it is too much invention Neander says that if a writer must choose every word that is artificial. If properly done the additional artifices of verse and rhymer are no less contrived but can add to the effect of the play.