Friday, November 25, 2011

Name:-Italiya kinjal B.

Paper –E-C 304 English Language teaching-1

Topic: - The 4 Language Skills

Roll No:-09

Batch: - SEM -III

Submitted to: - Mr. Devarshi Mehta

The 4 Language Skills


When we learn a language, there are four skills that we need for complete communication. When we learn our native language, we usually learn to listen first, then to speak, then to read, and finally to write. These are called the four "language skills": Learning to speak, read, and write in the English language is the most important integration challenge that faces the more than one million immigrants.

The four language skills are related to each other in two ways:

• the direction of communication (in or out)

• the method of communication (spoken or written)

Input is sometimes called "reception" and output is sometimes called "production". Spoken is also known as "oral”. Note that these four language skills are sometimes called the "macro-skills". This is in contrast to the "micro-skills", which are things like grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and spelling. These skills are as under.

A) Listening -the ability to understand the language of the teacher and instruction, Comprehend and extract information, and follow the instructional discourse through which teachers provide information?

b) Speaking - the ability to use oral language appropriately and effectively in learning Activities (such as peer tutoring, collaborative learning activities, and question/answer Sessions) within the classroom and in social interactions.

c) Reading -the ability to comprehend and interpret text at the age and grade appropriate level.

d) Writing -the ability to produce written text with content and format fulfilling Classroom assignments at the age and grade-appropriate level.

A fully English proficient student is able to use English to ask questions, to Understand teachers, and reading materials, to test ideas, and to challenge what is being asked in the classroom. Four language skills contribute to proficiency as Follows: The main objective of this is to help students to develop listening skills for

Academic and professional purposes.

1. To help students acquire the ability to speak effectively in English in real-life Situations.

2. To inculcate reading habit and to develop effective reading skills.

3. To help students improve their active and passive vocabulary.

4. To familiarize students with different rhetorical functions of scientific English.

5. To enable students write letters and reports effectively in formal and business Situations.

6. To help them develop their soft skills and people skills, which will make the Transition from college to workplace smoother and help them to excel in their jobs?

7. To enhance students' performance at Placement interviews, Group Discussions and Other recruitment exercises.

Listening as a skill

English Listening Skills and Activities Effective Listening Practice
Acquiring Listening Skills

Acquiring listening skills is frustrating. This is because successful listening skills are acquired over time and with lots of practice. It's frustrating for students because there are no rules as in grammar teaching. Here is a discussion of the problem and some suggestions to improving listening skills.

Intonation and stress; key to Understanding

This feature takes a look at how intonation and stress influence the way English is spoken. By your ESL guide.
Speaking as a skill

How to speak more fluency

In order to imprint words on your memory and also to feel comfortable about pronouncing them at a moment's notice, it is necessary to practice vocabulary a number of times.

1. Decide which constructions and vocabulary is ideal for you to learn. (Be discerning, because you cannot learn everything.) Choose about ten new words per day to practice.

2. Practice them until you are word-perfect. Then use them in real situations by incorporating them into conversations with as many people as possible (at least six times each word or construction, but more if possible). The more you manage to use them in conversation, the more readily you will be able to say them fluently in the future.

REMEMBER: Fluency in English is accuracy with good pronunciation - not speed

How to speak more accuracy

From a learner's point of view, the problem with English is that it is too rich in constructions and vocabulary, i.e.: There are numerous words and constructions which have similar meanings. Mistakes occur when students remember half of one construction and half of another; they end up with a hotchpotch which is at best "incorrect but understandable" and at worst "nonsense"

Avoiding grammatical errors when speaking

Many students experience difficulties with the use of the present perfect, because the use of it does not correspond with a similar-looking tense in their own language. If it helps you, it is possible to avoid the present perfect altogether by using:-


e.g.: I have been to Tunisia. (Time unknown)

I went to Tunisia some time ago. (Exact time unknown)

I have just finished my homework. (Recent, but time unknown)

I finished my homework a short while ago (Recent, but exact time unknown)

English is such a rich and versatile language; it is possible to say what you want to say in more than one way.


Non-native speakers of English experience different pronunciation problems according to their native language. This is due to:

1. Different pronunciation of some letters

2. No equivalent sound in their own language

If students cannot hear whether they are pronouncing a sound correctly, then the only alternative is to "feel" and "see" whether they are pronouncing it properly.

English is a language which depends upon:-


Reading as a skill.

Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence, comprehension and fluency.


Reading skills are specific abilities which enable a reader

• to read the written form as meaningful language

• to read anything written with independence, comprehension and fluency, and

• To mentally interact with the message.


Here are some kinds of reading skills:

• Word attack skills let the reader figure out new words.

• Comprehension skill help the reader predict the next word, phrase, or sentence quickly enough to speed recognition.

• Fluency skill help the readers see larger segments, phrases, and groups of words as wholes.

• Critical reading skills help the reader see the relationship of ideas and use these in reading with meaning and fluency.

Strategies for Developing Reading Skills

• Previewing: reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions to get a sense of the structure and content of a reading selection

• Predicting: using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions about content and vocabulary and check comprehension; using knowledge of the text type and purpose to make predictions about discourse structure; using knowledge about the author to make predictions about writing style, vocabulary, and content

• Skimming and scanning: using a quick survey of the text to get the main idea, identify text structure, confirm or question predictions

• Guessing from context: using prior knowledge of the subject and the ideas in the text as clues to the meanings of unknown words, instead of stopping to look them up

• Paraphrasing: stopping at the end of a section to check comprehension by restating the information and ideas in the text.

When reading to learn, students need to follow four basic steps:

1. Figure out the purpose for reading. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate reading strategies.

2. Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity e amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory.

3. Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up skills simultaneously to construct meaning.

4. Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, helping them learn to use alternate strategies.
How to Improve Reading Skills

In the modern age of information, reading truly is a fundamental survival skill.

Here are ten tips that anyone can use to improve their reading skills:

1. You don't have to be a great reader to get the point.

2. Know WHY you're reading.

3. You don't need to read everything.

4. You don't need to read all of what you DO read.

5. Scan before you read.

6. Prioritize your reading.

7. Optimize your reading environment.

8. Once you start, don't stop!

9. Focus.

10. Practice!

Writing as a skill

Difference between spoken and written English. : Difference between spoken and written English. Spoken English is acceptable as long as it is understandable to the person whom you are talking to. Depending upon the person to whom you are talking, informal English can be used. Not much importance is given to the grammatical aspects. Pronunciation is important.

Written English: Written English Written English is formal. Grammar has to be take care of. Spellings are important. It really demonstrates your knowledge of the language. It helps create a good impression about the writer.
Writing also often involves going through a number of stages. When we write outside classroom we often go through these stages;

• Brainstorming – thinking of everything we can about the topic

• Making notes

• Planning

• Writing a draft

• Editing

• Producing another draft

• Proof- reading

Writing sub skill

 Punctuating correctly

 Planning

 Forming letters

 Linking

 Using the appropriate layout

 Paragraphing

 Proof-reading


A Good Teacher

 uses group work

 explains the meaning of all new words to the students

 adapts teaching style to students’ wishes, needs and learning styles

 spends a lot of time teaching correct pronunciation

 explains grammatical rules clearly

 encourages students to read aloud

 emphasises communication rather than grammar

 never uses or allows students to use L1 in the classroom

 uses the most effective teaching methods

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